How employability changed over years in India

According to Statista, the youth employment rate has been increasing ever since 1999 but the growth has been slow but steady. We see little growth till 2007 but from 2009 onwards, the rate has been increasing quite impressively with bigger jumps but still with a delta of hardly 1%.

There are and have been numerous factors that have affected the employment structure in India and below are discussed some of them.

Factors responsible for the rise and fall of employment in India over the past years

  1. After 1993, there began the withdrawal of women and children from labour and workforce mostly in the agriculture and manufacturing sector. This was because of increasing awareness about the necessity of gaining formal education and thus there was an increased entry in schools. Later, this led to the re-entry of women, now in urban markets.
  2. Due to industrialisation, there was a decline in opportunities in rural areas and a rise in urban areas. New factories with modern machinery were set up and these demanded an educated and civilized workforce. Machines replaced labour and this further decreased employment from the rural areas but a rise for the urban zones.
  3. Setting up of factories far from the rural areas affected the women labour more as they could not afford to leave their household for so long.
  4. There began the involvement of young workers in different sectors as more and more factories and manufacturing houses were set up. So, industrialisation both produced and killed many job roles.
  5. Because of the requirement of various types of skilled workers in different industries, there was a change in the occupation of existing workers with different skills that created a positive environment for employment, especially for the youth.
  6. The increase in literacy rate of about 30% from 1991 to 2018 has played a major role in increasing employment nationwide.
  7. Technology has created as many jobs as it took. On one hand, where machines did some of the labour work, it required an equal number of engineers and technicians to design and operate those machines and robots. IT too has its share of such ironical cases.
  8. The rise in literacy has created a booming environment for entrepreneurship development and thus many more job roles and large-scale employment opportunities.

It is to be noted that in most cases, the loss of employment in one industry was the result of the rise of employment in some other industry or the same industry when set up with modern technology, in urban areas far from rural and that perhaps needed some basic education level. Another thing to be noted is that the rate of employment is directly proportional to the rate of literacy as one has the knowledge, skills and better knows the market trends and employment opportunities.

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